Bio Ethanol
Ethanol is a substitute for petroleum or gasoline. The feedstocks usually used to produce Ethanol are:
Grains (wheat or barley)
Wood (development phase)

Ethanol has many environmental advantages over gasoline – a major contributor to climate change. It is estimated that a litre of biomass ethanol used to replace a litre of gasoline reduces the accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide – a harmful greenhouse gas – by 70%

Ethanol can be made from products other than grain. Major break-throughs are being made to convert biomass products into ethanol.

Much focus is on forestry wastes such as wood chips and sawdust, and agricultural wastes such as straw and chaff.
Innovative high-tech systems are being developed to meet the specific requirements of producing ethanol from wastes.

Basically, they all consist of four unit operations:

Pre-treatment…the pre-treatment of hard wood, soft wood and agricultural residues using steam or extrusion based processes has been optimised.

Hydrolysis…specifically tailored acid or enzyme based processes have greatly improved the efficiency of conversion of the pre-treated feedstock to fermentable sugars.

Fermentation…new genetically engineered strains of bacteria show promise for significantly improving ethanol production volumes

Ethanol recovery…extractive fermentation and other new developments have greatly enhanced overall efficiency.